Psychological Reactance. A Theory of Freedom and Control. Book • Authors: Sharon S. Brehm and Jack W. Brehm. Browse book content. About the book. Advances in Consumer Research Volume 16, Pages PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTANCE: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS. Jack W. Brehm, University. Abstract. Since Brehm first proposed reactance theory in , many studies have explored the remarkable psychological phenomenon of reactance, which.

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Two or three years ago when services at the Library of Congress were reduced because of the budget squeeze, users of the library screamed bloody murder.

However, when they are in a state of positive or negative mood, the strength of the arguments plays a less important role in predicting their reaction toward the freedom threat. Refining the prediction of effort: Or at least I don’t think you would like that, even if you brhm to obtain a Coke when you started to put your quarters in the machine.

Jack Williams Brehm, A Theory of Psychological Reactance – PhilPapers

Psychology, — Implicit and explicit responses to group identity threat. Another nrehm question for future research would be whether reactance motivation will always lead to efforts to restore freedom. Inspired by their review paper, we set out to explore the research addressing these gaps. Human Communication Research, — However, there are still unanswered but important questions for psychology to clarify.

If the threat is absolute, that is, sure to come into effect, people rationalize it. Reactance, the self, and its group: Reactance theory revisited In Chadee D. Without doubt many implicational principles are culture bound, but it would be my contention that the general principle of logical or psychological implication always operates. Indeed, one of the most distressing things in my life is when I find that a product that I bought 10 years ago, and now want again, is no longer on the market.


Individualists indicated a higher psycholovical of attractiveness of the eliminated option when the threat originated in psjchological ingroup versus an outgroup. Fear and psychological reactance: Pzychological it possible to experience reactance on behalf of another person?

Reactance theory — 40 years later.

Understanding Psychological Reactance

My guess is that while some users may have been inconvenienced, the real strength of their response came from the implied threat to all their uses of the library. A test and extension of the intertwined model.

Effects of warning labels on attraction to television violence.

A fourth and final reason for thinking of freedoms as specific is that the magnitude of reactance can be specified as increasing directly with both the number and proportion of freedoms that are threatened or eliminated. However, research still does not agree on the factor structure.

An Essay on Free Will. Additionally, how threatening controlling messages are perceived to be depends on the level of social agency. Here, we present our review of research on the measurement of reactance, the role of culture and self, vicarious reactance, determinants of reactance in the context of persuasion, and the crucial role of motivation in reactance processes.

Free Will and Determinism: People seem to either react to the threat immediately or after a time delay with intermediary cognitions e. This suggests one basis for distinguishing reactance processes from more pure anger processes, an issue that should be explored more carefully in future research.


The neural correlates of psychological reactance—An fMRI study. Furthermore, people with a more independent self-construal or an individualistic cultural background indicated stronger reactance when restricted themselves rather than being vicariously restricted Sittenthaler, Traut-Mattausch, et al. The implication principle is somewhat analogous to s principles of stimulus and response generalization that come from early research and theories on learning and performance–the work of Clark Hull, Kenneth Spence, and Neal Miller would be examples.

For example, if a sportshirt is permissible attire at a certain restaurant, then presumably one is also free to wear a jacket and tie. Can Reactance Be Measured?

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On the cognitive side, people may derogate the source of threat, upgrade the restricted freedom, or downgrade the imposed option change in attractiveness; e.

About 50 years of research has provided many answers regarding the determinants of reactance, the subjective experience of reactance, the processes involved, and its consequences.

Although it is difficult to explore these processes in real-world phenomena, it would be enormously enriching for reactance research.