ARTERITIS VIRAL – Free download as Powerpoint Presentation . ppt), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a contagious viral disease of equids caused by equine arteritis virus. (EAV), an RNA virus classified in the genus, Arterivirus, family. English Translation, Synonyms, Definitions and Usage Examples of Spanish Word ‘arteritis viral equina’.
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It is necessary to mention that due to EVA is an exotic disease, vaccinations are not recommended in our country yet. Background More than a century ago, reports were published in the European veterinary literature concerning a horse disease whose clinical features were consistent with those described for EVA. Untilthere were no reported cases of the disease in Argentina and the virus had never been isolated in samples from nasal swabs or abortions in horses suffering from respiratory or reproductive disorders.
Equine viral arteritis – Wikipedia
According to the World Animal Health Organization-OIE, a carrier stallion has serological positive for antibodies to the virus using the virus neutralisation test or an appropriately validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA and also positive virus isolation from the semen Timoney, All vaccinated horses should receive yearly boosters to protect them against infection and in the case of stallions, to prevent the development of the carrier state.
Fatal, congenitally acquired infection with equine arteritis virus in a neonatal Thorough bred. Crossfilled, EAV positive result by surveillance in borders, no cases reported in the country. Vet Pathol ; For females a negative result or stability of neutralizing titers in two serological, evaluated 28 days prior to shipment is required.
Anne-Lise Haenni for revision of English and critical reading of the manuscript. Addressing equine viral arteritis in the United States. Therefore, from a clinical point of view, all strains of the virus should be considered potentially abortigenic unless proved otherwise Timoney, Vidal result is very important if one considers that American commercial vaccines use strains which may not generate adequate immunity in our countries.
Bull Equine Res Instit ; This result is very important if one considers that American commercial vaccines use strains which may not generate adequate immunity in our countries. The case of Argentine has been largely discussed and documented in the scientific and technical literature, as it is the South American country with the largest number of reported cases. However, unlike other respiratory diseases, EAV can also be transmitted as a venereal disease during insemination, either by natural mating or artificial insemination, because the virus may be excreted in the semen, which is a major source of infection Figure 1.
An outbreak of abortion caused by the equine arteritis virus.
Equine Viral Arteritis esuina epidemiology and control. Persistent infection of the reproductive tract in stallions experimentally infected with equine arteritis virus. Subsequently, a second stallion developed pyrexia, but maintained adequate fertility. Changes in semen vigal following experimental equine arteritis virus infection in the stallion. Crossfilled, EAV positive result by surveillance in borders, no cases reported in the country. From the epidemiological investigations carried out, it was concluded that the possible entry of the virus that occurred through a stallion imported incould have spread the infection to other susceptible horses on the farm.
The signs shown depend on the horse’s age, the strain of the infecting virus, the condition of the horse and the route by which it was infected. Serologic and molecular characterization of an abortigenic strain of equine arteritis virus isolated from infective frozen semen and an aborted equine fetus.
Equine viral arteritis
Since there is no specific treatment for EVA, once the infection is confirmed clinical management should include rest, fluids and in some cases, broadspectrum antibiotics to reduce the risk of secondary bacterial infections. Genetic stability of equine arteritis virus during horizontal and vertical transmission in an outbreak of equine viral arteritis.
J Gen Virol ; However, from a practical standpoint, it is difficult to distinguish between EAV strains that can cause abortion and those which do not; additionally, there are no standard techniques to classify the strains based on their abortive properties. Clinical, virological and epidemiological features of the out break of equine viral arteritis in the Thorough bred population in Kentucky, USA.
Twenty-eight days after mating, serological surveys should be performed on the mares to determine if neutralizing antibodies against EAV have developed Virxl et al.
It is therefore possible to isolate the virus in a wide variety of tissues and body fluids, making isolation of the virus possible 2 days post-infection in nasopharyngeal swab samples, 19 days in white cells, and up to 9 days in serum or plasma Figure 2. Virulent and avirulent strains of equine arteritis virus induce different quantities ofTNF-alpha and other proinflammatory cytokines in alveolarand blood-derived equine macrophages.
The combination of vaccination with the use of isolation measures of unvaccinated animals can prevent the transmission of EAV. Three year later, in Octoberthe requirement to diagnose EVA in native, imported horses or seminal material was established. Bleeding was performed on all the horses in order to detect possible cases of seroconversion.
Equine Viral Arteritis: epidemiological and intervention perspectives
The author thanks Artdritis. Among the animal health requirements for permanent entrance of horses into Colombia, ICA requires that stallions be negative after two viral neutralization tests carried out during the 28 days prior to shipment and a 14 day interval between them; for seropositive stallions, the requirement is that they have mated two seronegative mares which remained negative after two neutralization tests, carried out first, equinq day of mating and second 28 days later.
There are considerable variations in the clinical symptoms and in severity of infection, and although many horses infected with EAV do not show symptoms, it has been demonstrated that experimental infection can be fatal Glaser et al.
Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus, equine arteritis virus, and simian hemorrhagic fever virus: Adv Virus Res ;