Dressel 1to 6: wine amphoras; Dressel 1: Roman wine amphora, B.C. to 13 A.D.; Dressel 2: Roman wine amphora, 16 B.C. to 29 A.D.; Dressel 3: Roman. An amphora is a type of container of a characteristic shape and size, descending from at least .. The first type of Roman amphora, Dressel 1, appears in central Italy in the late 2nd century BC. This type had thick walls and a characteristic red . Distinctive Features. This was the most common type of late Republican Roman amphora. Following an early classificatory scheme by Lamboglia (), the.

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There are no amlhora graves from the first half of the 1st century AD with as many wine amphoras as the c. The size may require two or three handlers to lift. Besides coarse amphorae used for storage amphoraa transport, the vast majority, high-quality painted amphorae were produced in Ancient Greece in significant numbers for a variety of social and ceremonial purposes.

Amphorae first appeared on the Phoenician coast at approximately BC. Further details on the recording methods used, and the research objectives, are contained in the archive.

The most common amphora type in Britain is also the easiest to identify. These amphoras were buried not long after breakage.

The earliest find of a Baetican salazon is the Dressel 9 from Clemency Luxembourg. Roman amphorae were wheel-thrown terracotta containers. Some time ago the writer published what he took to be a Haltern 70 from the Sheepen site at Colchester Sealeyfig. More Dressel 1 amphoras have been found in Essex than in any other English county. Perhaps, too, at Heybridge there was a darker side to our wine amphoras; some of them may have had more to do with the manipulation of natives than with hospitality and feasting.

Moreover, at Elms Farm a distribution map of Dressel 1 shows no major concentrations of sherds towards the Rivers Blackwater and Chelmer where this activity might have taken place. The only two-letter stamp known to the writer ending with M preceded by one of the other letters listed above is the RM stamp, and one can be reasonably confident that the Elms Farm stamp is another example.


Results have been encouraging and, when applied to the Elms Farm material, a Dressel 8 rim Figureno.

Gaulish Amphoras at Elms Farm: Another special type is the Panathenaic prize amphorawith black-figure decoration, produced exclusively as prize vessels for the Panathenaia and retaining the black-figure technique for centuries after the introduction of red-figure vase painting.

Biodegradation Environmental engineering Glass recycling Industrial ecology Life-cycle assessment Litter Paper recycling Plastic recycling Recycling Reusable packaging Reverse logistics Source reduction Sustainable packaging Waste management. At the same time, in central Italy, the so-called Spello amphorae, small containers, were produced for the transportation of wine. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.

Sometimes, such handles are formed from two separate rods of clay which were luted together. There is a minimum of four Pascual 1 from the settlement. Full discussion of the black sand fabric ‘problem’ is contained in the archive. The rims are distinctive and should seldom cause confusion. Most communities fed themselves; when they could not, they ran the risk of starving to death.

The writer decided to identify wall sherds thinner than A survey of Iron Age settlements along the Blackwater estuary in the vicinity of Heybridge shows an extensive network of sites with Roman imports, including amphoras Wallace It has been calculated that while a ship could accommodate approximately Dressel 1, it was possible to fit Dressel in the same space.

Imports started in Ceramic Phase 2 c. The seven wine amphoras four of which are Dressel 1 from pyre-related features form a significant proportion of those from the Late Iron Age settlement. Heather and reeds might be used as packing around the vases. Band skyphos Epinetron Kernos Luchnos.

File:Amphora Dressel 1B.svg

Clearly the economic burden of these great armies was immense and became a new and powerful factor in economic realignments in Gaul, the Rhineland and further afield. The vessel is amphorq to that century on the basis of its small handles that approach the neck horizontally Martin-Kilcher, abb. The Romans turned the Greek form into a standard -a declension noun, amphora ajphora, pl.


The rise to prominence of Heybridge under Augustus was therefore perhaps linked in some way to the supply of British produce overseas to supply the Roman army; behind the archaeology of Late Iron Age Elms Farm lies the hand of the Roman state.

Dressel 20 rims can be dated on the basis of their typology by reference to the indispensable charts published by Martin-KilcherBeilagen Honey wine mulsum and the dresdel wine called passum made from dried grapes raisins are both also attested by inscriptions.

It weighed heavily with the writer that Gaulish amphora body sherds were present in small quantities at Late Iron Age Silchester, but where the precise form could not be identified Williams, ; Fulford and Timby At Hengistbury Head it was impossible to tell if the many Dressel 1 amphoras there represented a trickle of wine over a century or more, or a more concentrated trade within a shorter period Williams b Imports peaked under Augustus in Ceramic Phase 2 c.

Quantification is by sherd count and sherd weight, to the nearest gram.

Amphora types according to Dressel

North-African production was based on an ancient tradition which may rressel traced back to the Phoenician colony of Carthage. There is still no satisfactory metrological scheme for defining subdivisions of the form.

The Peacock thesis that the Dressel 1 amphoras in Essex and neighbouring counties are a tangible expression of the 54 BC treaty arrangements – and that wine did not reach the south-east until then – has to be abandoned.

Fabric analysis shows that several different areas were involved in production of the form. As a form, Dressel 1 was produced from c.