unification of the two Yemeni Republics in in relation to Edward Azar‟s theory of Protracted Social Conflict. The study verifies Azar‟s. 2 See Edward E. Azar, The Management of Protracted Social Conflict. Theory Theory of Protracted Social Conflict and the Challenge of Transforming Conflict. The Management of Protracted Social Conflicts: Theory and Cases. Front Cover. Edward E. Azar. Dartmouth Peace and conflict studies: an introduction.

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The dominant group isolates itself from the needs of other groups, leading to an even bigger separation between groups even within an ethnicity. Studying protracted conflict cconflict one to conclude that peace is development in the broadest sense of the term.

At this point, actors begin to see where their identities converge, and where they diverge. In the Ceasefire agreement was signed, and the government agreed to disarm all paramilitary groups in theofy north and east.

The Management of Protracted Social Conflicts: Theory and Cases – Edward E. Azar – Google Books

The war, that has continued since then, has almost completely disrupted civil administration in the northern province and caused economic devastation of the whole country. The needs of the various parties are, in turn, the underlying causes of the conflict. Use the cpnflict layout guide to ensure the section follows Wikipedia’s norms and to be inclusive of all essential details. Tamil secessionists saw the establishment of their own separate state as the only way thheory securing their people.

After parties have articulated their animosities, the next stage is termed the reflexive—reframing stage where the “why” and “who” of the issue is examined. The effect of this stage is termed resonance, as each side has articulated their core concerns and heard the concerns of the other actors. JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Later voluntary regrouping of population resulted in another 10, Greek Cypriots leaving the northern part, and 40, Turkish Cypriots moving to the north, which created two homogeneous ethnic zones on the island.

This precondition also involves the reliance that many people have on their social groups; because governments in areas that experience protracted social conflict are often unable, incapable or unwilling to provide basic human necessities to the population, individuals turn to their social groups for stability. This stage leads to the tangible resolution of the conflict. Although the Cyprus conflict now lasts for a long time, its resolution does not seem to be close.


The researcher used the qualitative research approach, through which he was able to find the different facts, opinions, attitudes, and experiences about Rwanda conflicts from different informants in Rwanda through interviews and focus groups discussions.

In s the southern Republic of Cyprus applied for a membership in the European Unionand the Turkish Cypriots on the other side turned to Turkey. Among the Sinhalese, the anti-Tamil chauvinism started to spread and the Tamils were more and more disadvantaged and excluded. Such identity-driven rifts are the result of an underlying fear of extinction that often grows within vulnerable ethnic groups who live with the memories or fear of persecution and massacre.

This results in the domination of certain identity groups over others.

Protracted social conflict

However, it remains a challenge for conflict analysts and peace builders theoy arrive at an accurate assessment of the actual causes of the conflict for successful resolution and this provokes further analysis of the Rwanda conflict. When Greek Cypriots wanted to reduce autonomy and representation of Turkish Cypriots, the socisl opposed it and intercommunal violence pdotracted out.

Conflict process Dispute resolution Sectarian violence. This in turn emphasizes Azar’s theory that the “deprivation of human needs is the underlying source of protracted social conflict” where protraacted is emphasized by the collective grievances of a group of people.

Journal of Peace Research 38 3— Azar argued that the denial of basic human needs to a large portion of the population initiated instances of protracted social violence. Their tactics, proscribed as terrorist by many countries, are ruthless, brutal and highly efficient in eliminating their opposition. Numerous peace proposals and plans have been made, but more or less unsuccessful. Identifying the root causes of the Rwanda conflict might provide a baseline for redressing the evils in the country.

These cleavages are characterized by continuing hostility with sporadic outbreaks of violence; and caused by the frustration of human needs for security, recognition, and distributive justice. Contemporary Conflict Resolution, In contrast to the model of interactive conflict resolution ICR that Fisher proposed inwhich includes identity as one of many human needs, the ARIA model “keeps its focus more narrowly attuned to identity issues in particular.

From the research made, it has been found that Rwanda offers ample evidence to be referred to as a protracted social conflict. Please discuss this issue on the article’s talk page. By bringing animosities to the forefront, it is hoped that the mutual benefits of ending the conflict can be realized.


Rothman developed a unique approach of conflict resolution that is specifically designed to mitigate protracted social conflict.

The structure of the government needs to be changed so that all citizens are equally cared for and equally represented without bias or corruption. Retrieved from ” https: Conflict resolution approaches that focus on resources, or the interests of parties, may be appropriate means of conflict resolution in conflicts where the only issues are those of resource and interests; however, in protracted social conflicts the main issue is identity-based.

To alleviate the “underdevelopments” Azar holds responsible for protracted social violence, and in turn overcome the conflict resulting from underdevelopment, Azar points to the needs of security, development, political access and identity in terms of cultural and religious expression.

The relevance of Edward Azar’s theory of protracted social conflict in the context of Rwanda

Therefore, this research work is a potential significant contribution to the building of meaningful and sustainable peace in Rwanda. To overcome the dominance of the international economy, the country in question must work to build institutions that can ease global dependency and stimulate domestic economic growth.

Such a need for structural change is likely to result in a conflictt conflict. This invasion caused an exodus of aboutGreek Cypriots to the south. The ARIA model is a comprehensive, yet protractes approach to resolving protracted social conflict. In the northern part declared Turkish Federated State of Cyprus, which declared independence in as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprusrecognized only by Turkey. The constitution brought a ot system of power-sharingbut both groups wanted to gain more advantages.

But again, because of opposing interests all the proposals failed.

The resultant disconnection of society and the state can be linked to the colonial legacy, which, “artificially imposed European ideas of territorial statehood onto a multitude of communal groups. Therefore, protractdd theory needs to be accorded due recognition.

For example, many states are dependent on an external supply of armament. Metadata Show full item record. They run a parallel government in many areas of the north and east of Sri Lanka. Some features of this site may not work without it. This page was last edited on 23 Septemberat It generally refers to conflicts described by other researchers as protracted or intractablei.