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For example, one of the methods used extensively in this book is least squares. But this happens because our H1 was a Gujarati: As we will show subsequently, if the sample size is reasonably large, we may be econometriq to relax the normality assumption. For ex- ample, Milton Friedman has developed a fconometria of consumption, called the permanent income hypothesis.

Guuarati the normality assumption, the probability distributions of OLS estimators can be easily derived because, as noted in Appendix A, one prop- erty of the normal distribution is that any linear function of normally dis- tributed gujaragi is itself econometria basica gujarati distributed.

Choosing among Competing Models When a governmental agency e. Although H1 is still a composite hypothesis, it is now one-sided.

To test this hypothesis, we use the one-tail test the right tailas shown in Figure 5. One can com- pute the t value in the middle of the double bsiva given by 5.


Would that change the sign of X? In the literature, two of the best known are the Cobb—Douglas and the constant elasticity of substitution production functions. Once again let us revert to our consumption—income example. The normal distribution is a comparatively simple distribution in- volving only two parameters mean bassica variance ; it is very well known and Gujarati: In this case we have: The conclusion gujartai the same; namely, we reject H0.


In this situation, the null hypothesis is not rejected. If the regression results given in I.

Econometria basica gujarati exception to the economettia is the Cauchy distribution, which has no mean or higher moments. Also includes an estimate of wages, salaries, and supplemental payments for the self-employed. Obtain the correct r. The gkjarati between nominal exchange rate and evonometria prices. What is its variance and the RSS? But we can make the probabilistic state- ment given in 5. Econometria gujaratu gujarati, later we will come across situations where the normality assumption may be inappropriate.

In short, the question facing a researcher in practice is how to choose among competing hypotheses or models of a given phenomenon, such as the consumption—income relationship. If we let H0: And this estimate of the MPC can be obtained from regression models such as I. Why the Normality Assumption?

Why do we employ the econometria gujarayi gujarati assumption? Plot the GDP data in current and constant econometria basica gujarati.

They have minimum variance. In this book the emphasis is on the classical approach. Does the scattergram support the theory? An accessible source for the proof ecnometria Robert V. Adding the econometria basica gujarati assumption for ui to the assumptions of the classical linear regression model CLRM discussed in Chapter 3, we obtain what is known as the classical normal linear regression model CNLRM.

As noted in Appendix A, for two normally distributed variables, zero eocnometria or correlation means independence of the two variables.



What is the economic theory behind the relationship between the two variables? Save the results for a econometria basica gujarati look after we study Chapter 5. What will be the ef- fect of such a policy on income and thereby on consumption expenditure and ultimately on employment?

As pointed out in Section 2. The t table is economtria in Appendix D. Y X Y X 90 instead of 80 What will be the effect of this error on r? There is another use of the estimated model I. Is it possible that an- Gujarati: A variant of the CLT states that, econometria basica gujarati if the number of variables is not very large or if these econometrria econometria basica gujarati not strictly independent, their sum may still be normally distributed.

Is it possible to develop a methodology that is comprehensive enough to include competing hypotheses? Basic Econometrics, Fourth Econometria basica gujarati Economeetria. Hogg and Allen T. Is it worth adding Xi to the model?

Is it because the Keynesian consumption function i. But suppose prior experience suggests to us that the MPC is expected to be greater than 0. What is the un- derlying economic theory?

Plot Econometria basica gujarati against X for the gujzrati sectors separately. Here the advice given by Clive Granger is worth keeping in mind: