Intermittent Exotropia Caused by Common Near Vision Disorder: Exotropia — a common type of strabismus — is the outward deviation of an eye (eye turns. Exotropia is a form of strabismus (eye misalignment) in which one or both of the eyes Children with intermittent exotropia commonly close or squint one eye at. Exotropia, or divergent squint, refers to an eye that turns or diverges outwards. Exotropia may occur from time to time (intermittent exotropia) or may be constant.

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The tropia phase of intermittent exotropia is most noticeable when the child is tired or sick or when they are day dreaming. All these muscles must divregent coordinated and working properly in order for the brain to see a single image. Early surgery for Intermittent exotropia. Retrieved from ” https: An essay on the nature and the consequences of anomalies of kntermittent. It is stated in a study by Worth that the essential cause of squint is a defect of the fusion faculty and when the fusion faculty is inadequate the eyes are in a state of unstable equilibrium causing strabismus.

Even a moderate consecutive esotroia of up to 20 prism diopters may resolve without further surgery.

Exotropia – Wikipedia

Small children who won’t wear sunglasses may be offered a hat with a brim, such squnit a baseball cap, to shield the eyes from the sun, thereby limiting the need to squint. Symptoms are imtermittent the rise with diveggent reading, desk work, and computer use. You may only notice one particular eye drifting out, or it may be either eye that deviates, known as an alternating exotropia.

A new method of grading the severity of intermittent distance exotropia. Staying as healthy as possible may also help. The role of suppression during visual immaturity to overcome diplopia caused by strabismus has been suggested by various authors. Children who are capable of maintaining binocular vision are also less likely to develop amblyopia. Views Read Edit View history. Can exotropia be treated with patching?


Most often it results from surgical overcorrection of the initial esotropia. The surprising absence of symptoms is related to a well-developed suppression mechanism.

Experience-dependent transfer of Otx2 homeoprotein into the visual cortex activates postnatal plasticity. What is binocular vision? Kushner’s Classification of Intermittent exotropia Type Description Percent Basic Distance and Near Measurements are equal 37 Tenacious Proximal Fusion Distance measurement initially exceeds near, but the near measurement increases after 60min. Minus lenses glasses with a prescription such as -1 or -2 etc. Others are unaware that an eye is turning, unless another person mentions it to them.

For inferior oblique overaction with a significant V-pattern weaken the inferior oblique at the time of the horizontal surgery. In addition adults with longstanding intermittent deviations will often tolerate undercorrection, but will have symptomatic diplopia when overcorrected. In intermittent exotropia one of the important indications for therapeutic intervention is an increasing tropia phase, since this indicates deteriorating fusional control.

American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

Surgical Treatment Indications for surgery – As with any strabismus the indications for surgery include preservation or restoration of binocular function and cosmesis. Hemianopsia binasal bitemporal homonymous Quadrantanopia.

An unusually large overcorrection with gross limitation of ocular motility noted on the first postoperative divrgent is possibly due to lost or slipped lateral rectus muscle.

Divergence excessintermittent distance exotropiaorthotropia. Can anything be done to keep intermittent exotropia from getting worse? Over correction in esotropia surgery.

Cataract Congenital cataract Childhood cataract Aphakia Ectopia lentis. American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Recession of the lateral recti. Knapp and Jampolsky have postulated a theory that probably there occurs a progression from exophoria to bilateral, bitemporal hemiretinal suppression to intermittent exotropia. This page was last edited on 4 Novemberat Orthotropia achieved after bilateral lateral rectus recession without correction of refractive error. However, in some people it may become more frequent over time or progress to the point of becoming constant.


Some patients may notice symptoms like eyestrain, blurring, headache and difficulty with prolonged periods of reading.

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Exotropia may occur from time to time intermittent exotropia or may be constant. Children with intermittent exotropia commonly close or squint one eye at times, especially when they are exposed to bright sunlight. Children born with craniofacial anomalies and those with neurologic defects are more likely to exhibit exotropia.

It is the opposite of esotropia and usually involves more severe axis deviation than exophoria. Any refractive error especially a hypermetropia should be fully corrected.

Jampolsky et al emphasized that anisomyopia and anisoastigmatism bear distinct relationships to exodeviation Background We report a case of a 5-year-old girl with an intermittent deviation of both eyes since 3 years.

It is the opposite of crossed eyes, or esotropia. When both eyes are properly aligned and aimed at the same target, the visual portion of the brain fuses the forms into a single image. The earliest sign of exotropia is usually a noticeable outward deviation of the eye. The development of visual perception including acuity, color vision, contrast sensitivity, binocular vision, and three dimensional 3D perception occur during the critical period of development, divregent corresponds to a period of high plasticity.

In case of a limited adduction or lateral incomitance, advancement of the lateral rectus is indicated.