The Journal of Dental Hygiene. Halitosis: A Review of Current Literature. Brenda L. Armstrong Key Words: halitosis, oral malodor, bad breath, assessment. Halitosis is known as bad breath that emanates from the oral cavity either intra- oral .. Canadian Dental Association/L’Association Dentaire Canadienne Journal. Click here to view optimized website for mobile devices Journal is Halitosis or oral malodor is an offensive odor originating from the oral.

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Halitosis: a review article

What Are the Oth Here, the responsibility comes to the dentist in assessing and treating this apparently common phenomenon, since oral cavity is the most common source of halitosis. Abstract Halitosis is a condition where the breath is altered in an unpleasant manner for the affected individuals and impairs them socially as well as psychologically.

Enzymatic breakdown of amino acids, resulting in production of VSCs. The psychosomatic disorders pertaining to dental practice with revised working type classification.

Halitosis: From diagnosis to management

Journal of periodontal research. Odor reduction potential of a chlorine dioxide mouthrinse. You can use the following forms to record your learning and action points from this article from Pharmaceutical Journal Publications. Halitosis breath odor Periodontology Effect of ahlitosis brushing on oral malodor in adolescents.

What Are the Other Origins of Halitosis?

Self-perception of breath odor: If persons are obsessed with the idea of having bad breath, consultation with a hyua psychologist is required. Mouthrinses for the treatment of halitosis. Thus, this review is about the pathophysiology and various etiologies of halitosis, the knowledge of which can help in the betterment of treatment options. Temporary, or transient, halitosis can be caused by smoking and dietary factors such as garlic.


Oral surgery, oral medicine, and oral pathology. Biochemical and histochemical studies of acid beta-galactosidase author’s transl ] Histochemistry. Halitosis and gastroesophageal reflux disease: If it is not detected of the etiology accurately, the treatment can be unsuccessful therefore investigation and adequate diagnosis are crucial. Sulfur-containing compounds in the breath can generate an electro-chemical reaction. These VSCs, beyond responsible for halitosis, can also initiate and accelerate periodontal disease progression.

Halitosis – An overview: Part-I – Classification, etiology, and pathophysiology of halitosis

Perspective article Review article Research article. Oral malodorous compound activates mitochondrial pathway inducing apoptosis in human gingival fibroblasts.

Eating strongly odoriferous food substances Food substances with strong odor like garlic and onion, after being absorbed into the bloodstream during digestion, are transferred to the lungs, and the exhaled air is characterized by the odor of that particular food substance.

In general, halitosis can be either primary or secondary: Excessive ketone production can also result from dieting. Halitosis can be treated if its etiology can be detected rightly. The halitosls may be dry first thing in the morning, giving rise to morning bad breath, often caused by mouth breathing while asleep. Correlation of the hydrolysis of benzoyl-arginine halitosix BANA by juranl with clinical parameters and subgingival levels of spirochetes in periodontal patients.

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The bacterial interactions are mainly due to several proteolytic and anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterial species and are not associated with any specific bacterial infection. In the gas chromatography method, the patient close the mouth and hold air 30 s, then mouth air 10 mL is aspirated using a gas-tight syringe.


A review of associated factors and therapeutic approach. The only Gram-positive bacteria so far proved to be associated with halitosis is Stomatococcus mucilaginous. A new mouthrinse combining zinc and chlorhexidine in low concentrations provides superior efficacy against halitosis compared to existing formulations: These approaches should be only used as a temporarily solution to relieve and improve the satisfaction of the patient.

Halitosis among racially diverse populations: Enumeration of possible etiological sources[ 91415161718192021 ] is given in Table 1. Low salivary flow and volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air. Light absorbance readings were determined using a spectrometer.

Advising patients on halitosis and oral hygiene | Learning article | Pharmaceutical Journal

Introduction to Clinical Microbiology for the General Dentist. Could it be more than mere bad breath? The results of the salivary incubation test are shown a strong correlation with the organoleptic measurement. Moreover, it is expensive and not used commonly in chairside, and requires a skilled operator.

Hallitosis halitosis and Helicobacter pylori infection. Epidemiology Flipping through the pages of ancient Greek and Roman[ 2 ] literature thousands of years back, bad breath is mentioned in their writings also, and Mediterranean countries have used ladaneey a resion for freshening the breath.

The ninhydrin method is simple, rapid, and inexpensive.

Current methods and future prospects.