Mano Dura (Iron Fist) and the Ley Antimaras (Anti-Gang Law). Honduras. Social violence, (in)security, and security policies in Honduras and Central. America. Con la aprobación de la Ley Antimaras se sanciona con una pena de un fuerte lo que llevaba el Estado de Honduras, por lo que empezaron. cargo de las Fuerzas. Armadas. Reforma constitucional. Nueva Ley. Orgánica de la. Policía. Ley anti-maras. Reforma del. Código Penal. Crisis y reorganización.

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The Construction of the Maras – 4. Case studies – Graduate Institute Publications

Lastly, the hard-line approach was not designed to contain gang activity in the long run; it focused instead on increasing security in the short term by moving mareros from the streets hondurad prison Bosworth Maras veered toward either extortion, as in Guatemala and El Salvador, or small-scale drug trafficking, like the MS in Honduras, where it has reportedly been involved in money laundering via the purchase of small businesses.

This question is even more pressing when political motivations behind certain portrayals blur the lines between politicization and securitization.

The government hurriedly announced that the maras would not be part of any future dialogue, and the mission has not yet addressed the issue of violence prevention nor dialogue with the gangs. Such measures could be emulated by gangs in Guatemala and Honduras.

Catalogue Author s Publishers Selections Excerpts. Thousands of suspected gang members were arrested for minor drug possession in in Guatemala.

El déjà-vu de las políticas de seguridad en Honduras

Hide Footnote At-large gang members, facing a revival of Iron Fist measures and not benefiting from the privileges provided to their jailed peers, began to break with the agreements. In this way, the regime also makes sure that the audience receives the securitizing move as intended.

Throughout the NTCA, violence prevention efforts have been largely ineffective, and evidence of any lasting achievements is scarce. Hide Footnote The need to subsist encouraged illicit activity, while the absence of the state enabled them to exert their own control over entire territories, often after brutal fighting with the rival mara to establish an undisputed turf boss.

  EHEIM 2224 PDF

In contrast to the punitive attitude of the Salvadoran and Honduran anti-gang policies, Guatemalan measures were not as drastic but showed a similar tendency Brands Following this logic, the maras would need to be addressed by public policy before they could be framed as a substantial danger. The zntimaras system should be reformed to strengthen management through better training and protection.

Among the three countries analyzed in this paper, Honduras and especially El Salvador are not characterized as much by rural and indigenous populations Peetz A poll reports 54 per cent of Salvadorans agree that the police should be allowed to act beyond the law sporadically to capture suspects.

Antimarae otherwise specified, this report will use the terms maras and gangs to refer to the two main groups, MS and B In The Construction of the Maras: In this way, the maras have arguably been brought down from an emergency level and as such they have been moved back from the securitized end of the spectrum to the politicized area i.

Furthermore, during the implementation period of the repressive plans, operations were filmed on site and afterwards broadcast on prime-time television, with thousands of dollars were spent on the publication of numbers Cruz This ohnduras and real war against the maras prevents discussion of the complex problems generated by profoundly inequitable societies.

“Ley antimaras” debía ser derogada tras sentencia de CorteIDH pero al contrario será endurecida

The national police has purged its ranks, which were rife with corruption. Hide Footnote That same year, Guatemalan MS members kidnapped and decapitated four random victims and left their heads on the street one of them in front of the National Congress with the aim of coercing authorities to repeal measures against imprisoned gang members.

Hide Footnote Other non-gang criminal groups in Guatemala, popularly known as paisasare reportedly seeking to grab greater shares of the extortion market.

Indeed, the policy not only failed but backfired according to Mateo Hide Footnote A recent study found that threats and murders were the two main factors driving forced internal displacement in that country, with women making up the largest share of victims.


In Guatemala, an estimated 80 per cent of extortions are commanded from prison. At a time when the prospect of mass deportations from the U.

Gang Violence and Extortion in Central America This video from Crisis Groups explores the social and economic roots of gang culture and discusses new approaches to minimise the violence of illicit gang activity. FRG [ Frente Republicano Guatemalteco ; Guatemalan Lwy Front] leadership will restore order and security in the country, as all of you have lived through kidnappings, murders, and more offenses.

These should also include pledges to end forced recruitment, particularly of girls, and public assurances that neighbours and citizens are free to move through gang-affected territories without incurring the risk of violence. Implementation of such policies would exacerbate economic strains in the Northern Triangle and spur increased gang recruitment of marginalised young people, especially if efforts are not made to provide returnees with assistance, security and economic sntimaras.

4. Case studies

Homicide rates perby country Credits Source: With disparities in the distribution of land, the contested results of the election in El Salvador fuelled revolutionary movements. We have all known cases of decapitations, mutilations, satanic acts and dismembering committed against minors, old people and defenseless women.

But the emblematic crime of the maras ahtimaras inherently micro-territorial. A programa program for its part joins together members of various clicas in specific money-making crimes, while those in charge of killings are known as sicarios hit-men or gatilleros trigger-pullers. The appeal for gang suppression has endured, especially in El Salvador, but success in violence reduction and rehabilitation of offenders has yet to be seen.

Analysis published by El Faro provides empirical support for these accusations.