The U-curve model for adjustment was first introduced by a Norwegian sociologist Sverre Lysgaard in , and it has been developed by other scholars during. by Lysgaard in ; more recently, however, its applicability to research in the The U-curve model was first described by Lysgaard in his study of. “Adjustment in a foreign society: Norwegian Fullbright grantees visiting the United States.” by Sverre Lysgaard, International Social.
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As a teacher of intercultural communication, I am confronted with a need to translate theoretical concepts into real-life situations. They were in their early twenties when they left Scotland, and with the exception of one couple travelled on their own.
To these may be lusgaard a possible reverse culture shock, which I have chosen to ignore because it is of limited use in relation to the present argument. When examining the data offered by the interviewees, I may have attempted to impose a structure on my material, connecting interview fragments that are not necessarily compatible.
Because they have gained a new cultural perspective, the sojourners may find it difficult to settle into their old ways.
Initial excitement gradually gives way to everyday reality, which leaves little time or energy for reflection. Compared to the four primary identities abovethey are less stable and are driven by external situational features and are subsequently internalized by individuals operating in the society. lysgawrd
Its symptoms may be physical illness and physical strain as well as psychological frustration, homesickness, depression Varner and Beamer Using Lysgaard as their theoretical basis, Iris Varner and Linda Beamer explain culture shock in terms of four stages: Within the group I have managed to obtain an acceptable distribution in lsgaard of age from 25 to 44 years oldgender 3 women, 4 menprofessional occupation workers, professionals, independents and public employees and immigrant experience from 2 years to In my case, however, it happens to people who are commonly regarded as fluent in their host language as well as their native one, and in this specific context, it indicates that a transformation is taking place at the subconscious level.
She was aware of the dress code attached to her professional status in Britain and would put on a business suit in order to lydgaard in with her surroundings. The gains in terms of intercultural competence are substantial.
U-curve — Moniviestin
They belong to the group of “Euro-Europeans” defined by the Danish anthropologists Anne Knudsen and Lizanne Wilken as “the employees of international companies, supernational organisations and news agencies, exchange students, sojourning business men and women, researchers working in the European research institutions — and ylsgaard else, who happens to live and work in another European country” Knudsen and Wilken The interview process represents an identity construction in which I, as interviewer, provoke certain responses by asking specific questions about the nature of Scottish identity in Denmark.
Our self-images are the result of continuous adjustment to specific circumstances, which suggests that we are capable of change. Such changes occur at the subconscious level and are unlikely to show in a quantitative survey.
If they go abroad for one or two years only, many sojourners will therefore lysgaaard move from an initial adjustment of explicit values and norms towards the intercultural stage, which is a shame as such inside knowledge would enable companies to strengthen their international position and market strategies. From being all excitement and new adventures the host culture becomes a threat to your identity. The two-year crisis represents a psychological response to lysgaare change of identity that has taken place during the first part of the sojourn.
My primary research tools are ethnographic, using qualitative data such as personal observations of intercultural settings as well as research interviews as primary sources. First of all, everything said by my interviewees was filtered by me as note-taker.
My interviewees describe their two-year crisis in different ways.
This means they will have to rely on public welfare in order to establish themselves in their new place. My argument is based on three assumptions:. Human beings possess multiple identities, but their value is relative, relying on specific contexts and situations. I found my respondents prepared for this discourse, and it is possible that they used the interviews as an opportunity to obtain information about my Danish perspective on their nationality.
They perceive people and events through pleasantly tinted or “rose-colored” lenses. In Scotland young professionals do not wear waterproofs — except if they are on the golf course or in the hills. Because they expect their residence to be permanent, immigrants feel they have to try harder to adapt, and they will often find the process of acculturation more stressful.
It is thus important to recognise that the timing lysgqard this crisis depends on individual circumstances, which is not clear from my terminology. This essay is an attempt to combine theories of sojourner adaptation with the qualitative results of my field work among Scottish immigrants in Copenhagen.
Companies will lysgaar their employees find accommodation and schools, which means that sojourners are only confronted with few structural problems. As things evolve around them, they are unlikely to distinguish between the series of minor culture shocks they are exposed to during the early part of their stay; however, once they have undergone the major identity crisis which I named the two-year crisis, they will know the difference.
The U-curve model for adjustment was first introduced by a Norwegian sociologist Sverre Lysgaard inand it has been developed by other scholars during the following decades e. I offer a complementary model of acculturation, containing the stages of arrival, the two-year crisis and interculturality, which to me explains the observations made in the interviews.
At the micro-level, we constantly shift between gender, family, professional, social and ethnic identities, but we are often unaware of such adaptations because they happen all the time. The feeling of culture shock develops from the realisation that one does not possess enough knowledge to manage in a new cultural setting.
In a cultural No Man’s Land –
According to the methodological categories established by Dr. I would thus describe my first year as representative of the holiday stage, with any early sense of frustration or alienation overshadowed by the excitement about a new home. When I started collecting my information, I never planned to impose a super-structure on my data, but as my interviewees kept returning to similar themes, I ended up with this model.
They are mostly detected by those whose stay in Denmark exceeds five years, which explains why they are ignored by theorists focusing on short-term sojourns only.